Child Matreatment Risk and Protective Factors

A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of child maltreatment.  Although children are not responsible for the harm inflicted upon them, certain characteristics have been found to increase their risk of being maltreated.  Risk factors are those characteristics associated with child maltreatment – they may or may not be direct causes.

Risk Factors for Victimization
Individual Risk Factors
  • Children younger than 4 years of age
  • Special needs that may increase caregiver burden (e.g. disabilities, mental retardation, mental health issues, and chronic physical illnesses)
Risk Factors for Perpetration
Individual Risk Factors
  • Parents’ lack of understanding of children’s needs, child development and parenting skills
  • Parents’ history of child maltreatment in family of origin
  • Substance abuse and/or mental health issues including depression in the family
  • Parental characteristics such as young age, low education, single parenthood, large number of dependent children, and low income
  • Non-biological, transient caregivers in the home (e.g. mother’s male partner)
  • Parental thoughts and emotions that tend to support or justify behaviors

Family Risk Factors

  • Social isolation
  • Family disorganization, dissolution, and violence, including intimate partner violence
  • Parenting stress, poor parent-child relationships, and negative interactions.

Community Risk Factors

  • Community Violence
  • Concentrated neighborhood disadvantage (e.g. high poverty and residential instability, high unemployment rates, and high density of alcohol outlets), and poor social connections
Protective Factors

Protective factors buffer children from being abused or neglected.  These factors exist at various levels.  Protective factors have not been studied as extensively or rigorously as risk factors.  However, identifying and understanding protective factors are equally as important as researching risk factors.

There is scientific evidence to support the following protective factor:

Family Protective Factors

  • Support family environment and social networks
  • Several other potential protective factors have been identified.  Research is ongoing to determine whether the following factors do indeed buffer children and maltreatment.
  • Nurturing parenting skills
  • Stable family relationships
  • Household rules and child monitoring
  • Parental employment
  • Adequate housing
  • Access to health care and social services
  • Caring adults outside the family who can serve as role models or mentors

Community Protective Factors

  • Communities that support parents and take responsibility for preventing abuse

(The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC)